Sun Joffe Agreement

As a result of this agreement, the Mikhail Borodin Kominterinternaget came to China in 1923 to help restructure and consolidate the KMT, modelled on the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Kuomintang (KMT) formed the First United Front. The Second World Congress of the Communist International, held in 1920, had decided to support national revolutionary movements in the colonies and half colonies. As a result, in 1923, the Communists decided to support Sun Yat-Sen`s nationalist movement in China. And this decision was formalized by an agreement signed on January 26, 1923 by Sun Yat-Sen and Adolph Joffe, the Soviet representative based in Shanghai. This agreement is known as the Sun-Joffe Manifesto, a declaration of cooperation between Komintern, Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). . The manifesto also stated that the Soviet system was not suitable for China; Generally announced the willingness of the Soviets to cooperate with the KMT in their struggle for the sociability of China. The manifesto thus became the basis of cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Soviet Union. On January 26, 1923, Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-sen) and Soviet negotiator Adolph Joffe signed the sun-joffe agreement, Soviet support for Sun`s attempts to re-establish China: Sun-Joffe Manifesto or the Sun and Joffe Joint Manifesto (飛 言) was an agreement signed between Sun Yat-sen and Adolph Joffe on January 26, 1923 for the cooperation of the Republic of China Kuomintang and the Soviet Union.

[1] The manifesto stated that the Soviet system was not suitable for China, and it generally announced the willingness of the Soviets to cooperate with the KMT in their struggle for China, which was then denied. [2] Roy, who had just been on stage, apparently urged the communists to support the revolutionary insurrection of the peasants; and fight the leaders of Wuhan Kuomintang. He seemed to think that the immediate campaign against Chiang Kei-shek in the North was in jeopardy. His argument was based on information he had received that Chiang Kei-shek was threatening the right flank of Wuhan`s troops, while his left flank was also vulnerable to attack. Roy`s basic position was that the Chinese Communists had two options: either to support the demand of peasants on land or to delay the agricultural revolution. But the support of the peasants, who then demanded, would lead to a confrontation with Wuhan Kuomintang. Indeed, the Seventh Congress returned to Lenin`s call (at the Second Congress – 1920) to form communist alliances with the national movement. The Communist International has now abandoned its previous view of the “ultra-left”, adopted about seven years ago at the Sixth Congress (1928). She made a complete reversal, stressing that “while preserving their political and organizational independence, Indian communists must actively work at the National Congress of India to facilitate the progress of the crystallization of a national revolutionary wing among them.” Communism and Nationalism in India: A Study in Inter-relationship, 1919-1947 By Shashi Bairathi The Political Thought of Sun Yat-sen pp 91-101 | Indian communists have been asked to sever relations with “counter-revolutionary” organizations such as the Indian National Congress (INC) and left-wing bodies such as the Independence League (IL).

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